- Poor posture - such as bad mattress, straining muscles and ligaments at work or while playing or sitting incorrectly at the desk or steering wheel, pushing, pulling and lifting things carelessly.
- Injuries - twisting caused by accidents or playing sports.
- Arthritis - age-related changes in the vertebrae.
- Structural problems - resulting in backaches.
- Ruptured or bulging disks - sudden injury or pressure over cushions of the disk can lead to disc rupture, which results in pressure on a nerve, resulting in backaches.
- Abnormal curvature of the spine - in some diseases, the spine seems to be curved with a tilt towards one side.
- Osteoporosis - the bones become brittle and porous, leading to compression of the spine and fracture.
- Cancer of the spine.
- Infection of the spine - for example, tuberculosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Other infections -infection of the uterus or kidney.
- Sleep disorders - individuals with sleep disorders are more likely to experience backache as compared to others.
- Shingles - an infection that can affect the nerves.
Anyone can develop a backache, including children and teenagers, though there is no adequate research to prove what contributes to backache. Notably, the following factors may put someone at a greater risk of developing backaches:
- age - common with the advancement of age, generally starts between 30 and 40 years
- sedentary lifestyle - lack of exercise makes the muscles weak, causing backache
- excess weight on the spine
- carrying heavy school bags or office bags
- carrying a laptop bag
- excess weight or obesity
- wearing high heels or improper footwear
- heavy workouts
- diseases - some types of arthritis and cancer can contribute to back pain
- improper lifting - bending actions, such as lifting a child or lifting heavy objects from the ground
- psychological conditions - people prone to depression and anxiety appear to have a greater risk of backache
- genetics - there is some evidence that certain types of spinal disorders are inherited, such as HLAB27
- jobs that require long hours of standing or sitting without a break - people with careers such as receptionists, traffic police or those that involve sitting on a chair for long hours, namely, call centre workers, IT engineers, etc.